Vertus et proprietes des fruits dautomn

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Pommes, poires, myrtilles, châtaignes, raisins et grenades… Propriétés et vertus des fruits d’automne.

Respecter le rythme des saisons est important pour les aliments, tant pour profiter de tout le potentiel nutritif du végétal arrivé à maturation de façon spontanée et naturelle, que pour le déguster au moment où il dégage toutes ses saveurs. L’arrivée des premières journées de froid amène son lot de couleurs et de saveurs sur les étals de fruits et légumes, qui peuvent aider notre organisme à faire le plein d’énergie et notre système immunitaire à nous défendre face aux tracas de l’hiver qui est déjà à nos portes. Quels sont les fruits et légumes incontournables à table ?

La pomme

La pomme est un fruit très consommé chez nous. Il existe plusieurs dizaines de variétés de pommes, sucrée ou acidulée, à croquer ou à cuire, variété récente ou ancienne, soyez un peu curieux et rendez-vous chez un producteur de votre région.    Source de fibres, de vitamines et de sels minéraux, la pomme est un aliment riche en substances antioxydantes qui contribuent à lutter contre le vieillissement.

La pomme contient également de la pectine 1  qui aide les intestins paresseux en plus de lutter contre le mauvais cholestérol.

La poire contient également des fibres, vitamines et minéraux.

Blauwe bosbessen

La myrtille 1, quant à elle, est riche en acide folique et en potassium. Elle exerce aussi une action astringente sur l’intestin, c’est pourquoi elle est très conseillée en cas de diarrhée.. Ces petites baies peuvent également avoir une action bénéfique sur la tension artérielle.

Le raisin  aussi est riche en antioxydants, en vitamines et en sels minéraux. Son pouvoir détoxifiant favorise le transit intestinal en plus d’avoir un effet drainant.

Le raisin

Le raisin aussi est riche en antioxydants, en vitamines et en sels minéraux. Son pouvoir détoxifiant favorise le transit intestinal en plus d’avoir un effet drainant.

Les polyphénols de la myrtille et du raisin noir 3,4 combinés à la vitamine D pourraient avoir un effet positif sur le système immunitaire.

Du raisin produit en Belgique est proposé dans certains magasins. Si vous n’en trouvez pas, sélectionnez celui qui vient d’Europe.

La grenade

Parmi les fruits riches en antioxydants figure la grenade 5, parfaite en automne pour recharger ses batteries et lutter contre la fatigue typique du changement de saison. Aussi, son action immunostimulante est telle que la grenade peut être considérée comme l’un des meilleurs aliments que l’automne ait à nous offrir.

La châtaigne

La châtaigne 6 est un aliment à haute valeur nutritive, un excellent reconstituant et une source d’énergie et de minéraux grâce à sa teneur en cuivre, en fer, en phosphore. Compte tenu de leur concentration élevée en glucides et protéines, les châtaignes peuvent constituer un repas ou parfaitement remplacer le pain ou les pâtes.

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Are fermented foods more nutritious?

Yes, fermentation can improve the nutritional content of foods in many ways. Here we explain you how citing tempeh as an example:

Essential Building Blocks

1. Bacteria involved in fermentation produce essential building blocks (vitamins, antioxidants and minerals) that help keeping a healthy body. For instance, dietary sources of vitamin B12 are usually from animal derived foods with very few plants providing a good amount. Lupin beans per se have very little content of vitamin B12 but when fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii into tempeh, the content of this vitamin considerably increases making it ideal for vegetarians. 

Neutralizing Anti-Nutrients

2. The process of fermentation “neutralizes” anti-nutrients or digestion blockers. For example, phytic acid is found in many plant products and is known to reduce the digestibility of protein and the release of minerals such as magnesium, iron, calcium and zinc. In short, this acid turns plant food less nutritious. Thanks to the fermentation of soybeans, research demonstrates that Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2710 can decrease, in about one third, antinutritional phytic acid in tempeh. The study also show that this microbe can also improve tempeh’s nutritional value by increasing the content of available phosphate.

Diverse Community

3. Fermented foods provide bacteria that contribute to having a diverse community in our gut. A study in healthy volunteers consuming tempeh showed that the participants had an increased population of, amongst others, Akkermansia muciniphila, a bacterium that is naturally present in the intestine and has been actively researched for its benefit in metabolic syndrome.

Can fermented foods cause gas or bloating?

Yes, this could be possible. If what you eat contains live microbes, gas or bloating are part of the most reported side effects, although these are quite harmless. 

Enjoy Small Amounts

Experiencing this kind of discomfort also depends on the amount of fermented foods you are starting with. Enjoy small amounts and allow your gut to go through an adjustment period

Conclusion

Some people do not have problems, others do. When trying to find the source of bloating, it is also important to bear in mind that consuming other, non-fermented foods can also be undigestible to your body, like lactose, and  can also be a common source of bloating.  Your dietician may help you for sure with your detective work to find the cause and the solution.

Can all bacteria in fermented foods survive in the gut?

Not really again. Let’s take fermented milk as an example. Lactic acid-producing bacteria grow on the sugars and other nutrients in milk. As they multiply, the bacteria produce compounds that change the flavour, texture, and yield nutrients in a wide range of products including e.g. cheese or yogurt. 

Yogurts

Many yogurts, but not all, contain bacteria that when consumed can reach the gut alive. When this happens, these bacteria can have an impact on our health as validated by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA). 

In a scientific opinion, EFSA’s panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies agreed that yogurt containing at least 108 living cells/g  starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus improve the digestion of lactose in people with lactose maldigestion

Do all fermented foods contain live microbes?

Not really. To produce fermented foods, ingredients must undergo a transformation process mediated by microbes, either naturally or through the addition of a starter culture. However, some products may afterwards be treated (pasteurized, baked, or filtered) in a way that ultimately kills/removes any live microbes before we consume them.

Heat Treatment

For example, sourdough.  When the dough is used to make bread it will be baked and this exposure to heat will kill the microbes. As well, some fermented vegetables are packaged in jars and may be heat treated as a means of extending its shelf life, or simply to stop the fermentation. Finally, when you prepare e.g. sauerkraut in your kitchen, you probably will be heating it, so you will also kill or inactivate the bacteria.

Conclusion

It may not always be the case for some fermented products to be treated. For those, a very high number of live bacteria will be present at the end of the fermentation.

MUST YOU HAVE A STARTER CULTURE TO MAKE YOUR OWN FERMENTED FOOD?

Yes and no. First of all, let’s recap about what a starter culture is. This is a preparation containing  a high concentration of desired microorganisms that will start and assist a fermentation by making specific chemical, smell and taste changes. Thus, the process becomes efficient, controllable, predictable and… safe!

Happy accidents

Fermented foods were born as “happy accidents” when in the early times suddenly “spoiled” food turned long-lasting and pleasant-tasting. Such accidents were possible thanks to spontaneous or natural fermentation, an event in which you only rely on the microbes present in the environment or the food to colonize the raw materials. If you opt to go for this kind of fermentation, be aware of the risk of contamination. You should take extra care about many aspects such as: acidity, oxygen, temperature, moulds, etc. By not having a proper control over the fermentation, it is possible that you may have an outgrowth of non-friendly microbes in your food. These can produce offflavours or even toxic compounds that can put your health in danger.

Conclusion

Using a starter is not a must but as you can see, it definitely gives you many advantages. This includes a fast acid formation that makes the development of non-desired bacteria much more difficult. What is also important is that, in principle, the quality of commercial starters is checked and you can get information if the microbes present can produce potential compounds that could lead to unpleasant effects including headache, diarrhea, etc.